Wednesday, May 10, 2017

Bear Traps on the Final Exam (Watch Your Feet)

Big Bad Wolf
Big Bad Wolf (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1. At least every other paragraph, source your material:

 * Police said... 
 * According to police...
 * According to the police report... 
 * xxxxx told police that...

2. Unless someone is arrested, do NOT include her/his name.

3. If someone IS arrested but that person is 17 or under, do NOT include his/her name.

4. Only include so-called racial identifiers - an Asian woman, a Hispanic or Latino man,  a black or African-American woman if:

* the incident might be considered a hate crime, that is, a crime in which the so-called race/ethnicity of one of those involved in some way precipitated the incident. In that case the race/ethnicity of a victim or of someone who was arrested might be included.

* the preceding not being true, someone is a suspect in a crime (i.e., has NOT been arrested/is still out there) AND

* the description is sufficiently detailed that it might aid in the apprehension of the person who committed the crime.

The Department of Public Safety received information from the San Francisco Police Department (SFPD) on Saturday, July 4 that an attempted rape with force occurred on June 28 at approximately 12:30 pm at the French Quarter Laundromat at 2601 McAllister at Stanyan.

The suspect is described as a white male, possibly Hispanic, medium complexion, 20 to 23 years old, 6 feet tall, 200 pounds with a full trimmed beard.  He was last seen wearing a brown rock-band t-shirt, possibly a Metallica shirt, brown corduroy jean pants and a back pack.  He was accompanied by a mutt pit bull dog, tan and white in color on a brightly colored leash.

5. Don't announce as fact something that you don't know and that none of your sources actually said.  Example: According to the police report, the professor was waving a large stick and complaining in general terms - let us say about being late to class -about his students who were standing nearby. Several students told police they felt threatened.

Do NOT say that the professor was threatening his students. You can only describe what police said his actions were and what the police said the students felt about those actions: According to police, several of the professor's students who were standing nearby felt threatened when the professor waved a large stick while complaining about them.

Do you see the distinction?

6. If the person's age is available, give it.

7. Beware of writing in chronological order, that is, beginning with the first thing that happened and gradually working your way down to the most important thing that happened, that is, The News. Put the most important information at the top.

A local wolf was killed yesterday after falling into a pot of boiling water while attempting to crawl down the chimney of a house that he had tried but failed to blow down moments before.
  The water had been put in place by the homeowner, a local pig acting, he told police, to protect himself and his two brothers whose homes had been blown down by the wolf earlier, and who had then fled to their brother’s home.
    The pig told police his home is made of brick. His brothers' homes, he said, were made respectively of sticks and straw. (100 words)

For those who've forgotten the tale, here is a more benign version:


Monday, April 24, 2017

The Week of April 24

1) Your Big Story is not due until Friday at midnight.

2) With one exception,   I am not giving any extensions. Write your story as if the information you have at the moment of writing is all that you will have. If there are holes in the story because sources have not responded, acknowledge that in the text.

3) However, if a source comes through after deadline, add that source to the story and resubmit.

4) No AP style test until a week from Wednesday.

5) No class on Wednesday. I will be in my office 11 a.m. - 6 p.m. for consultation. I can be consulted at home by phone other days and times.

6) Some of you still owe me your beat memo. ASAP please.

7) You have all been invited to enroll in Videolicious. Do so.

Monday, March 27, 2017

Meet Our Wednesday Visitor. Your Assignment is to Post Questions for Her in Comment Section

Meet Nanette Asimov.

Stories she suggests we look at.

Here are a few story options that could inspire discussion about how we cover stuff:

UC Berkeley worker says professor sexually assaulted, then fired her (good for discussion of fair coverage / and what’s a nut graf)

Videos show officer tackling seated man, waving gun in Vallejo (non-education story – wahoo! – good not only for fairness, but what happens when one side doesn’t call you back? and where’s the nut graf)

Outrage over dean altering story in Santa Clara campus paper (How to cover news and be fearless at a private university… and where’s the nut graf)

Monday, February 27, 2017

Getting Started, or Ignore Your Notes

Sailing Analogies for Interviewing Techniques

Who are you as an interviewer?

The wind I face represents my natural disposition as an interviewer, in this case timidity. To get the information I want, I need to interview more aggressively. That is, I "sail" into the wind, forcing myself to be as direct as possible - which is never going to be straight ahead.


 The wind behind me represents my natural disposition as an interviewer, in this case combative assertiveness. To get the information I want, sometimes I need to interview less aggressively. That is, I "sail" with the wind - without piling on too much sail. Sometimes one needs to slow down.


Or just jump in the water and go for it, clumsily but persistently. Dog paddlers can get there, too.

(But be careful about trying to persuade through analogy as I have just done.)

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Assignment for Friday 2.24.17 - Reaching Out to Profile Subject

The assignment is simple: Ask someone to serve as your subject and corroborate the request. The best way to ask for an interview is usually face to face, though a phone call followed by an email is fine if your potential subject is not someone you rub up against every day.

You will satisfy this assignment through an email to your subject asking for an interview which you copy to me. Of course, if you ask your subject face to face and he/she agrees, the email you copy to me will consist of thanks to your subject for agreeing and confirmation of when your interview will take place.

Employ the GOSS model in your interview. (Some people call this the GOSSY model, the Y standing for all the times in your interview that you ask Why.)


O=obstacles to achieving those goals

S=solutions to overcoming those obstacles

S=first step in implementing the solutions

The point of your interview is understanding how your subject came to USF and how your subject sees her/his future at this fine institution. Was getting a job here a specific goal or one of many possible satisfying outcomes? What is your subject's most important goal now that she is teaching here?

You will collect basic biographical information, but you will be alert to how that information plugs into the GOSS model.

Finally, I want you to ask what your subject makes of the current labor troubles at USF. (We will talk about this in more detail in class.) I'm guessing the outcome of the faculty vote on the recent contract offer from the university will influence your subject's goals, both personal and professional. This will be true even if your subject is not a faculty member because I heard at a recent union meeting that faculty salary increases are tied to that of other campus unions, which was explained to me as meaning that our actions could result in other employees getting bigger - or smaller - raises.

Addendum: You may want to ask several people for interviews. Since there will be a penalty for late stories, you want to make sure you have *somebody* to interview. You also want to have a fallback position if your first choice agrees, schedules the interview close to deadline and then blows you off.

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

Some Thoughts in Your News Conference Stories

1)Jacobs presents the problems at the jail in this order:

 a) crumbling walls
 b) overcrowding
 c) 17 escapes caused - by implication – by previous two problems
d) jail food
e) rape of juveniles, which he called “the worst part”

I liked it when you changed the order in which you presented these. Some of you put food last, which I liked because it is not related to the state of the actual building. Jacobs said he was quitting because he couldn’t get a new jail. Food is a complaint that would not be resolved by a new building. I also liked it if you put the rape problem higher – since Jacobs suggested it was the “worst” problem and I also liked it if you put escapes higher since arguably that’s something that would immediately affect the community. Even if you don’t care about how “jailbirds” are treated, you care if they are back on the street.

Bottom line: I liked it when you used news judgment to change the order in which Jacobs presented his complaints.

2)Jacobs final comment that “As of 8 p.m. tonight you won’t have my butt to kick around anymore. San Francisco here I come” was tricky because your deadline came before 8 p.m., and it wasn’t clear if Jacobs meant he would officially resign at that time or if that’s when he was leaving town. Remember that he said he was announcing his resignation, which is not quite the same as specifying that he had already done it. Some of you used his final comment as a kicker, without trying to explain it. That was fine. Some of you ignored it, which was acceptable since the news is the resignation.

3)Yes, Jacobs’ theatrical excess was a trap. I didn’t want you to spend too many words on his behavior and not on what he said. But neither did I want you to ignore his bellowing, cigar-throwing and wall-pounding.

4) Usually I want you to bury the “when” in your lead. But in this case, I can imagine leading with “Less than two hours ago….”

5) That Bronze star. It’s actually irrelevant, but I didn’t mind your mentioning it near the end of the story. The Juanita rumor. Oh no. It’s unconfirmed, and irrelevant given what we know at this moment. Therefore, its ethically dubious to include it. Moreover, it’s potentially libelous, something we will talk about in more detail soon. If it turns out to be false, it could result in a libel suit the newspaper might lose.

6) Big big point. The thing we learn during the press conference – the news – is that Jacobs is resigning as sheriff. That’s the news, and I wanted it in the first 100 words.

Wednesday, February 08, 2017

Some Thoughts on Your Shoplifting Stories

1) Did he do it or not? I created the fact set, and I don’t know, or at least I can’t be certain based on the facts I created. The only eyewitness to the actual theft is the security guard, and it is possible that, as he tried to follow the shoplifter out of the store, he lost sight of the actual thief and started running at Timothy Milan, panicking him into fleeing, and to fighting back when a stranger grabbed him. The fact the cops have not located the sweaters that the guard says were taken is consistent with that scenario.

On the other hand, the kid may be guilty, so be careful about how you phrase things and what you do with the official statement about those missing sweaters. I can support those of you who put that reference at the end as a kind of implied question mark. I can support those of you who ignored it. Both approaches will be defensible if, on the morning your story is published, video emerges – from passersby or from in-store cameras – that makes clear Milan’s guilt or his innocence.

Probably a bigger problem has to do with leads in which you said something like, “According to police, a USF student shoplifted two sweaters…,” or some variant of that. You might stick an “allegedly” in there. Or you might say, “A Macy’s security guard told police that….” This is the seductive beauty of newswriting, of finding a way to say things that is accurate not just in detail but also in implication. By the way, here are some thoughts from a veteran reporter on the use of “alleged” and “allegedly.”

Seeking to avoid prejudging the facts in a crime and to protect the rights of the accused, reporters sometimes overuse “alleged” and “allegedly.” If it is clear that someone has been robbed at gunpoint, it’s not necessary to describe it as an alleged robbery or the victim as an alleged victim. This practice insultingly casts doubt on the honesty of the victim and protects no one. An accused perpetrator is one whose guilt is not yet established, so it is redundant to speak of an “alleged accused.” If the perpetrator has not yet been identified, it’s pointless to speak of the search for an “alleged perpetrator.”

2) For certain stories, I am going to stringently enforce the hundred-word rule. Given that rule, in this case you **must** tell me early on that the DA’s office says no one will be charged with anything. (Of course, you need to source it so you’re good if the DA changes his mind.) And that means that even earlier than the DA’s decision, you must give some detail on how Milan died. Died. That’s the word some of you used without elaboration, leaving the reader to wonder if he had a heart attack or an asthma attack or tripped and hit his head. You have multiple sources, from cops to hospital to coroner, to justify saying that he was choked to death. Softening it to “died after being placed in a headlock” is all right, too. That said, you don’t need to get into the autopsy’s technical language too high in the story. Save that for after the hundred-word line.

3) Editorializing and opinionating! You don’t need to call it a tragedy, a word that means different things to different people. Provide the details, and let your readers arrive at their own judgments. (Disclaimer: Some first-rate journalists disagree with me. They like the word!) Now let’s take a look at a couple lively grafs from one of your stories.

According to SFPD Lt. Mason Monroe, no sweaters were recovered after the young man was pronounced dead. However, despite a lack of evidence that Milan was, in fact, hiding sweaters in his pant legs, the San Francisco District Attorney’s office released a statement today stating that they would not recommend charging anyone involved with a crime at this time because it “seemed to be a case of excusable homicide.”
It is unknown if Daugherty’s involvement in the case will affect his position as a clarinetist with the San Francisco Chamber Ensemble. The two other bystanders remain unidentified and their involvement in Timothy’s death remains unclear at this time. 

Notice my cuts. First cut: No sweaters were recovered. Period. Not before he died and not after. Second cut: Now you seem to be directly challenging the police investigation. Several reasons exist for not doing this, not the least of which is video may emerge that makes you look foolish and “not objective.” (Later on we will talk about how slippery that word is.) Third cut: I’d say the better question is how Daugherty feels about having killed someone. But don’t speculate. Call him and ask and, if he responds, that’s another story. Same thing for wondering about how his employer will feel about his new notoriety. Don’t waste words speculating. I don’t think I’d spend words on the two mystery bystanders, though I didn’t cut it. They are potential witnesses to how the chase began. The involvement comment? The police account seems pretty clear to me. They chased, but they ran slower than Daugherty, and there are better things to spend words on.

I am not saying we never speculate in a story. If we did not have the DA quote, we could reasonably say no word yet on anyone being charged in the death. That thought would obviously be in everyone’s mind, and readers would want to be reassured that you, the reporter, recognized the importance of determining so important a fact. One assumes in that case the story would actually contain something like, “The District Attorney’s office has not yet responded to questions (or has not commented) about whether….” because a good reporter would have made that phone call, even if it’s five minutes to deadline.

Wednesday, February 01, 2017

Little Red So Far

Thinking about Little Red Cap and lead writing:

There are four 'who's' in this story - LRC, granny, the huntsman and the wolf. It's hard to imagine a lead that didn't include all four, which most of you did. The obvious choice for first "who" is LRC. You might also lead with the huntsman since his is the decisive action. Leading with granny? Not likely since her victimhood is clearly subordinate to LRC. None of your leads begin with the wolf. Such a lead might read something like:

 A wolf was killed yesterday after eating alive a young woman and her grandmother. A huntsman saved their lives by cutting the wolf open.

I would call that an acceptable lead, if not an obvious first choice, since the wolf is the engine of the story.  Let's use our wolf lead to explore the Art of the Lead.  A lead like this illustrates the nature of news writing. It does not include a number of colorful and interesting details, but it does not **contradict** those details. That is, this account may be bare bones, but it will prove consistent with any of those details if they are presented later in the story. For instance, a reader of our wolf lead might assume that the wolf was immediately killed by his being cut open and only by the act of cutting him open. Not so. Apparently being filled with stones at the instigation of Little Red Cap causes the wolf's death. A close reading of the first two sentences shows that the lead does not misrepresent the facts of the story as they emerge later on. Of course, we might choose to put more of those colorful details higher up, resulting in this lead:

A wolf was killed yesterday after eating alive a young woman and her grandmother and then falling asleep in the grandmother's cottage. According to authorities, a huntsman attracted by the wolf's snoring saved the lives of the women by cutting the wolf open with a pair of scissors. (48 words)

Little Red Cap, one of the victims, suggested filling the wolf's stomach with stones, which resulted in his death.

At this point, you might "go chronological": "Little Red Cap met the wolf earlier in the day...," fleshing the story out.

Now let's see how many words it takes you to include the key details.

1) A huntsman came to the rescue of a young girl and her grandmother when he heard unusual sounds coming from her house. Upon arriving at the scene, the huntsman discovered a wolf sleeping in the old woman’s bed. He cut open the animal finding not only the grandmother, but a young girl as well. (49 words)The girl, little red cap, was on her way to bring cake and wine to her grandmother, when she was led astray by a wolf in the woods. After the perpetrator had ditched the girl, he ran to the grandmothers house. Using a ruse, he was able to enter the home and swallow the woman whole. He then dressed up as the grandmother and waited for the young girl, swallowing her as well.

2) A huntsman stumbled across a wolf who had consumed a grandmother and granddaughter. He was passing the grandmother’s home when he heard loud snoring, prompting him to investigate further. The wolf was found asleep in the grandmother’s bed wearing her clothes and cap. The granddaughter was delivering a bottle of wine and piece of cake from the village to her grandmother in the woods, who was ill at the time. Acting quickly, the huntsman cut the wolf open, freeing the grandmother and granddaughter. (originally 83 words)They sustained no injuries. They filled the wolf with heavy stones, killing him immediately after a fall.

3) Little red cap was eaten by a wolf disguised as her grandmother while attempting to deliver a piece of cake and a bottle of wine to her cabin in the forest one day.(uh oh - no huntsman, no multiple consumption, no rescue)

4) (Villager) Little Red Cap, a young resident of the village, has been rescued by a huntsman from the stomach of a predatory wolf, police reports say. Her grandmother, who lives just thirty minutes outside of the village, was rescued as well. (passive voice - give the huntsman some love) The culprit has been pronounced dead at the scene. (originally 50 words) Cap had been on her way to her ill relative’s home with a care package when she was initially approached by the wolf, who then lured the child to a hedge of hazel bushes as a distraction. He then ran to devour elderly woman, and subsequently posed as her so as to lure the child to the cottage.

5) Little Red Cap was headed to her sick grandmother’s house the other day, when an evil wolf tricked her off the trail. Upon her arrival, Little Red Cap saw the wolf had eaten her grandmother. Soon after, she too was eaten. Thanks to a passing hunter, both Grandmother and Little Red Cap (specifics!) were rescued from the horrific event. (originally 58 words)

6) A sweet young girl named Little Red Cap was eaten by a wolf disguised as her grandmother, when trying to deliver wine and cake to her grandmother's cabin in the forest. (One more sentence, please)

7) Once upon a time, a little girl known as Little Red Cap was walking through the woods to deliver a piece of cake and a bottle of wine to her sick grandmother. In the woods she came across a fox who asked her where she was going and told her she should pick some flowers for her grandmother. While Little Red Cap picked her grandmother flowers, the wolf entered the grandmother’s house and ate her. When Little Red Cap finally arrived at her grandmother’s house, the wolf ate her too. Luckily, later that night when the wolf had fallen asleep, a huntsman suspiciously approached the scene and quickly understood what had happened. The huntsman cut open the wolf’s belly and out came the little girl and her grandmother. They then filled the wolf’s empty body with stones, which would eventually kill him. (142 words - this can be tightened up *a lot* but it is shorter than the original) The huntsman kept the wolf’s pelt and the grandmother was able to eat her cake and drink her wine in peace.

8) A wolf ate a little girl with a red cap in the woods one day by disguising himself as her grandmother, who he also ate due to his hunger. (Now give the  huntsman his sentence)

9) A good Samaritan huntsman saved a girl known as “Little Red Cape” and her grandmother after he cut them out of the stomach of a vicious wolf that had swallowed them both. The girl and her grandmother are unharmed, but the wolf has died after they? filled him up with rocks. (51 words - this is my favorite)

10) A young girl and her elderly grandmother were attacked by a wolf once upon a time, officials say. The girl, known to her village as “Little Red Cap”, was bringing errands to her ailing grandma a half hour into the woods when the assault began. The wolf approached Red Cap and succeeded in luring her off the road; he then proceeded to her grandmother’s house, where he consumed both grandmother and girl after donning the senior woman’s clothing. Both individuals are alive due to the work of a passing huntsman, who cut the women out of the wolf’s belly with scissors. The huntsman had reportedly been tracking the animal for a long time prior to this incident, and took the wolf’s pelt after killing him for his crime. (128 words - notice preliminary cuts)

Monday, January 23, 2017

Orwell's Ministry of Truth

Winston examined the four slips of paper which he had unrolled. Each
contained a message of only one or two lines, in the abbreviated
jargon--not actually Newspeak, but consisting
largely of Newspeak words--which was used in the Ministry for internal
purposes. They ran:

times 17.3.84 bb speech malreported africa rectify

times 19.12.83 forecasts 3 yp 4th quarter 83 misprints verify current issue

times 14.2.84 miniplenty malquoted chocolate rectify

times 3.12.83 reporting bb dayorder doubleplusungood refs unpersons rewrite
fullwise upsub antefiling

With a faint feeling of satisfaction Winston laid the fourth message aside.
It was an intricate and responsible job and had better be dealt with last.
The other three were routine matters, though the second one would probably
mean some tedious wading through lists of figures.

Winston dialled 'back numbers' on the telescreen and called for the
appropriate issues of 'The Times', which slid out of the pneumatic tube
after only a few minutes' delay. The messages he had received referred to
articles or news items which for one reason or another it was thought
necessary to alter, or, as the official phrase had it, to rectify. For
example, it appeared from 'The Times' of the seventeenth of March that Big
Brother, in his speech of the previous day, had predicted that the South
Indian front would remain quiet but that a Eurasian offensive would shortly
be launched in North Africa. As it happened, the Eurasian Higher Command
had launched its offensive in South India and left North Africa alone. It
was therefore necessary to rewrite a paragraph of Big Brother's speech, in
such a way as to make him predict the thing that had actually happened. Or
again, 'The Times' of the nineteenth of December had published the official
forecasts of the output of various classes of consumption goods in the
fourth quarter of 1983, which was also the sixth quarter of the Ninth
Three-Year Plan. Today's issue contained a statement of the actual output,
from which it appeared that the forecasts were in every instance grossly
wrong. Winston's job was to rectify the original figures by making them
agree with the later ones. As for the third message, it referred to a very
simple error which could be set right in a couple of minutes. As short
a time ago as February, the Ministry of Plenty had issued a promise
(a 'categorical pledge' were the official words) that there would be
no reduction of the chocolate ration during 1984. Actually, as Winston
was aware, the chocolate ration was to be reduced from thirty grammes
to twenty at the end of the present week. All that was needed was to
substitute for the original promise a warning that it would probably be
necessary to reduce the ration at some time in April.

As soon as Winston had dealt with each of the messages, he clipped his
speakwritten corrections to the appropriate copy of 'The Times' and pushed
them into the pneumatic tube. Then, with a movement which was as nearly as
possible unconscious, he crumpled up the original message and any notes
that he himself had made, and dropped them into the memory hole to be
devoured by the flames.

What happened in the unseen labyrinth to which the pneumatic tubes led, he
did not know in detail, but he did know in general terms. As soon as all
the corrections which happened to be necessary in any particular number
of 'The Times' had been assembled and collated, that number would be
reprinted, the original copy destroyed, and the corrected copy placed on
the files in its stead. This process of continuous alteration was applied
not only to newspapers, but to books, periodicals, pamphlets, posters,
leaflets, films, sound-tracks, cartoons, photographs--to every kind of
literature or documentation which might conceivably hold any political or
ideological significance. Day by day and almost minute by minute the past
was brought up to date. In this way every prediction made by the Party
could be shown by documentary evidence to have been correct, nor was any
item of news, or any expression of opinion, which conflicted with the
needs of the moment, ever allowed to remain on record. All history was
a palimpsest, scraped clean and reinscribed exactly as often as was
necessary. In no case would it have been possible, once the deed was done,
to prove that any falsification had taken place. The largest section of
the Records Department, far larger than the one on which Winston worked,
consisted simply of persons whose duty it was to track down and collect all
copies of books, newspapers, and other documents which had been superseded
and were due for destruction. A number of 'The Times' which might, because
of changes in political alignment, or mistaken prophecies uttered by Big
Brother, have been rewritten a dozen times still stood on the files bearing
its original date, and no other copy existed to contradict it. Books, also,
were recalled and rewritten again and again, and were invariably reissued
without any admission that any alteration had been made. Even the written
instructions which Winston received, and which he invariably got rid of
as soon as he had dealt with them, never stated or implied that an act of
forgery was to be committed: always the reference was to slips, errors,
misprints, or misquotations which it was necessary to put right in the
interests of accuracy.

But actually, he thought as he re-adjusted the Ministry of Plenty's
figures, it was not even forgery. It was merely the substitution of one
piece of nonsense for another. Most of the material that you were dealing
with had no connexion with anything in the real world, not even the kind of
connexion that is contained in a direct lie. Statistics were just as much
a fantasy in their original version as in their rectified version. A great
deal of the time you were expected to make them up out of your head. For
example, the Ministry of Plenty's forecast had estimated the output of
boots for the quarter at 145 million pairs. The actual output was given as
sixty-two millions. Winston, however, in rewriting the forecast, marked
the figure down to fifty-seven millions, so as to allow for the usual claim
that the quota had been overfulfilled. In any case, sixty-two millions was
no nearer the truth than fifty-seven millions, or than 145 millions. Very
likely no boots had been produced at all. Likelier still, nobody knew
how many had been produced, much less cared. All one knew was that every
quarter astronomical numbers of boots were produced on paper, while perhaps
half the population of Oceania went barefoot. And so it was with every
class of recorded fact, great or small. Everything faded away into a
shadow-world in which, finally, even the date of the year had become

Remarks for First Day of Class

·      *** A challenging time for journalism as a profession that seldom has there been a greater need for responsible, courageous journalism ***

    But other practical benefits

h The fine art of asking questions – and getting answers

·      Sometimes you only have 100 words to say what you have to say. And sometimes you have 5,000. Journalism trains you to do both.

·      You are curious about life in general, but you don’t want to appear too inquisitive. Journalism is a license to probe while simultaneously training you to do so ethically and humanely.

Back to general usefulness

  • critical analysis;
  • resourcefulness;
  • self-management;
  • interpersonal skills;
  • leadership;
  • a flexible, creative and independent approach to tasks;
  • the ability to meet deadlines;
  • the capacity to communicate information effectively and clearly.
The ability to listen and to work productively in a team are also crucial skills.

The Internet has created a whole new source of journalism jobs, from professional bloggers to social media managers.

·      Many trained as journalists work for commercial brands, government or political entities or entrepreneurial and tech firms. Only 41 percent of the group doing journalism work for traditional media companies. Philosophy, economics, and journalism majors were admitted to law school at rates of 82, 79, and 76 percent.